Commuters are defined as employees who are subject to social insurance contribution (SVP=sozialversicherungspflichtig) and the place of work and place of residence are in different administrative units.
The level of administrative units is relevant as an employee is only a commuter in a statistical sense when the place of residence is in a different administrative unit than the place of work, i.e. when data is given on municipality level the municipal border is relevant, when data is given on Kreis level the Kreis border is relevant.
An actual commuting in terms of "travelling to work" is no necessity, as secondary residences or other ways of accommodation (business flats, hotels, etc), or teleworking arrangements are ignored.
Place of Residence The place of residence is the municipality the employee has provided to the employer in line with the social insurance registration. It is usually also the place of living and is registered with the local registry office. By regulation it is not compulsory to provide a specific address, therefore the place of residence can be the primary place of residence, or any other place of residence.
Place of Work The place of work is based on the registered place of operation of the employer. In particular companies with several places of operation of significant different sizes do not always register all places of operation but only the headquarter, so that a mismatch might occur.
In-Commuter, Out-Commuter, Commuter Balance, Commuter Volume As the main point of view is the municipality observed
The mathematical difference between In-Commuter and Out-Commuter is the Commuter Balance.
- In-Commuter are employees who do not live in the municipality observed
- Out-Commuter are employees who's place of work is not in the municipality observed
Adding up both commuter numbers (In- and Out-Commuter) provides the Commuter Volume.
The Share of In-Commuters from another municipalyty into the municipality observed as a percentage of the number of SVP employed persons (by place of residence) of the municipality of origin provides a picture of a Commuter Catchment area. The maps and tables are limited to municipalities of origin where this share is > 5%.
as at 30.06.
Bundesagentur für Arbeit